Academic education

1997
Habilitation (no equivalent in American academic system) Biological Oceanography, Kiel University (Germany)
Thesis: Brittle Stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in Benthic Ecosystems of Arctic Seas: Synopsis [in English]

1988
Doktor (equivalent of PhD) Marine Biology, Kiel University (Germany), Advisor: G. Hempel
Thesis: On the Composition of the Benthic Fauna of the Western Fram Strait [in German]

1984
Diplom (equivalent of MSc)
Biology, Kiel University (Germany), Advisor: W. Nellen
Thesis: On the Occurrence of Fishes and their Food in selected Gullies of the Frisian Wadden Sea [in German]

1978 – 1984
Study of Biology at Kiel University (Germany)